El bajo peso al nacer como una lesión ateroesclerótica temprana

Vilma Fundora Álvarez, Emilio Manuel Zayas Somoza

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El bajo peso al nacer (BPN) constituye un problema global de salud que suele presentarse entre el 10 – 15% de los nacimientos vivos, y que impacta particularmente a los países de bajos y medianos ingresos. El BPN puede afectar la supervivencia del niño y su posterior crecimiento y desarrollo, en especial el neurodesarrollo. El BPN es tenido hoy también como una señal temprana de ateroesclerosis ante reportes crecientes de que los niños con bajo peso suelen exhibir mayores tasas de las distintas manifestaciones de la Gran Crisis Ateroesclerótica (GCA) en la adultez, entre ellas la coronarioesclerosis y la enfermedad cerebrovascular. Asimismo, los niños con BPN podrían tener un riesgo mayor de exceso de peso y obesidad global y abdominal en edades posteriores. Igualmente, los niños nacidos con bajo peso podrían mostrar una mayor prevalencia de hipertensión arterial (HTA) y Diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DMT2): eventos éstos agravantes de la ateroesclerosis. El seguimiento a largo plazo de los niños nacidos con bajo peso implicaría la identificación temprana y oportuna de alteraciones bioquímicas anticipatorias del Síndrome metabólico (SM) tales como estados alterados de la utilización periférica de los carbohidratos, dislipidemias e hiperuricemia. El seguimiento a largo plazo de estos niños también implicaría la detección de azotemia y albuminuria como indicadores de daño renal. El reconocimiento del BPN como una señal temprana de la ateroesclerosis haría posible entonces la intervención farmacológica y dietética adecuada, y con ello, la disminución del riesgo de eventos arteriooclusivos agudos en la adultez, todo lo cual coadyuvaría a una expectativa de vida más prolongada y una calidad de vida superior.

Palabras clave

Bajo peso al nacer; Aterosclerosis; Enfermedad cardiovascular

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