Nutrición enteral precoz en el paciente con lesiones complejas

Wilfredo Hernández Pedroso, Ernesto Chávez Rodríguez

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Resumen

El interés de introducir nuevas pautas terapéuticas en la atención del paciente con lesiones complejas ha motivado el estudio y desarrollo de esquemas novedosos de apoyo metabólico y nutricional. En los últimos años se ha podido comprobar que el paradigma de la Nutrición enteral precoz mejora el pronóstico de los pacientes con lesiones complejas. Las experiencias acumuladas en Cuba con esta modalidad de apoyo nutricional son escasas. Es por esta razón que se presenta esta revisión sobre las características de la Nutrición enteral precoz, y las ventajas y desventajas esperadas de la aplicación de la misma. Se mencionan las experiencias extraídas de ensayos clínicos y estudios experimentales. Se concluye que la Nutrición enteral precoz ha mostrado ventajas importantes en la evolución de los pacientes con lesiones complejas, entre las que se pueden mencionar la disminución de la morbi-mortalidad, la reducción de la estadía hospitalaria, y el acortamiento del tiempo de ventilación mecánica. Como es de esperar, todas estas bondades traen consigo una disminución destacada de los costos hospitalarios. Si bien la implementación de los esquemas de Nutrición enteral precoz puede requerir de recursos materiales y humanos, el costo de instalación de los mismos no empaña los beneficios tangibles que se obtienen en la evolución del paciente con lesiones complejas.

Palabras clave

Nutrición; Nutrición enteral; Lesiones complejas; Nutrición enteral precoz

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