La importancia del estado nutricional para el paciente oncológico

Ivonne Chon Rivas, Daysi Chi Ramírez, Roberto León González, Jesús Blanco Bouza, Iván Cuevas Véliz, Alicia Rodríguez Abascal, Nuria Mederos Alfonso, Carlos Roca Muchuli

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Resumen

La incapacidad para mantener un adecuado estado nutricional es un problema frecuente en el paciente oncológico. La propia enfermedad, así como las diferentes variedades de tratamiento oncoespecíficos, puede conducir a la desnutrición energético-nutrimental, que  puede ser grave, con implicaciones pronósticas, debido a la escasa tolerancia y respuesta a la terapéutica citorreductora. En este artículo se reseña brevemente la fisiopatología de la caquexia tumoral, los efectos locales y sistémicos del propio tumor, así como la repercusión de la terapéutica citorreductora sobre el estado nutricional del enfermo. El apoyo nutricional en el paciente con cáncer continúa siendo controversial. Sin embargo, se constata actualmente una mejor apreciación de la necesidad de la evaluación nutricional temprana, oportuna y regular del paciente oncológico; así como el apoyo nutricional, con los principales objetivos de mejorar la respuesta al tratamiento onco-hematológico, disminuir las complicaciones que puedan originarse de la conducción de los mismos, y permitirle al enfermo una mejor calidad de vida.

Palabras clave

Cáncer; Desnutrición; Apoyo nutricional; Evaluación nutricional

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